Impact Evaluation of Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP) Phase-I (2003-2009):
economic success will depend on its providing educated and skilled manpower. Technical Education is the fundamental enabler of this success.
A strong technical education system is a necessary precondition to
underpinning Indias efforts to enhance further the productivity and efficiency of economy.
TEQIP, a well timed and effectively implemented Project
was the answer to emerging challenges the country is likely to face. NPIU
entrusted the task of Impact Evaluation of TEQIP to M/s Spectrum Planning (India) Limited, New Delhi (SPIL)
a consulting organization. The report outlines quantitative approach to the study, analysis of findings and conclusions with lessons for TEQIP Phase-II.
2.Uniqueness of TEQIP
2.1TEQIP has all the five main ingredients, required to make a success of a large government initiative/programme viz:
a.Detailed Planning undertaken through a detailed Project Implementation Plan (PIP) which is in place well before Project commencement.
b.Appropriate Staffing adequately taken care at all levels by NPIU.
c.Robust Systems a three tier selection process for selecting Project institutions, followed by detailed appraisals and self assessments of Institutions.
d.Approach freedom to institutions to develop own institutional development plan and to determine own path for excellence.
e.Thorough Monitoring ensured through a system of periodic auditing and mentoring of Project institutions during Project cycle followed by independent external impact assessment of the Project.
2.2TEQIP has been a successfully implemented Project with unique achievements such as:
a.Institutional reforms for faculty development were undertaken and teachers performance appraisal by students has been a best practice spread wide through TEQIP.
b.Reforms in institutional governance through grant of autonomies.
c.Creation of better learning Infrastructure such as world class 24X7 operational computer facilities, modernization of labs with state of art equipments leading to high quality/demand driven research & development, publications and introduction of new post graduate & doctoral programmes for first time in the institutions.
3.The Present Study
Impact Evaluation of TEQIP was
carried out by a team of senior professionals of SPIL comprising academic experts, business analysts, operations research specialist and specialists in economics,
statistics and human resource. The main instruments used for
conduct of the impact evaluation were:
An exhaustive pre-tested questionnaire for input data collection.
Multi Level Multi Point Rating System (MLMPRS) for quantitative assessment of impact.
Overall impact on 127 Project Institutions has
resulted in 107 (84 percent) institutions having a highly satisfactory impact. Detailed analysis based on
quantitative assessment of each of 76 pre-determined sub-parameters/parameters of
impact on all Project institutions reveals that overall impact of TEQIP is a success.
Total internal revenue generated (IRG) by Project institutions increased from Rs 2030 million (2002-03) to Rs 5810 million (2008-09).
125 (98 percent) Project institutions have carried out academic and non-academic reforms of their internal & external auditing processes.
126 Project institutions have successfully implemented semester system.
In all 127 Project institutions majority of the stakeholders participate in BoG.
95 (75 percent) Project institutions do not have full autonomy in all its components while 49 (52 percent) Project institutions could implement Block Grant.
107 (84 percent) Project institutions could achieve academic excellence.
Total number of SC/ST/OBC beneficiaries through Tribal Development Plan in the Project institutions increased from 8500 (2002-03) to 50,000 (2008-09).
About 2600 students undertook visits to other Project institutions.
About 300 R&D projects were undertaken by faculty jointly.
4.5Services to Community & Economy
A cumulative of 13,000 visits were undertaken by community persons and 300 technologies were transferred to the community. Five hundred programmes were conducted for unorganized labor. During TEQIP implementation, a total of 2917 externally funded R&D projects valued Rs 4679.37 million were executed by Project institutions.
Continuous auditing and mentoring exercises led to improved performance and accountability.
5.Lessons for TEQIP Phase-II
Grant of academic autonomy and Block Grant should be made a prerequisite for the institutions and States that are to be covered under TEQIP-II.
Sharing of resources/assets created should be made mandatory.
Gaps in impact on certain parameters can be addressed economically and sustained in the long term if each institution has a specific geography/industry/specialization focus area and extensively connects with the relevant community/customers within or outside the country. After examining various options and their pros and cons on economics/ sustainability we suggest a geographic focus for each Project institution.
Interdisciplinary collaborative efforts/approach should be given more weightage than multidisciplinary by Project institutions since all cutting edge developments in technologies occur at the interface of two or more disciplines. Interdisciplinarity enables integration of concepts, theories, techniques and perspectives from two or more disciplines to advance fundamental understanding or to solve problems whose solutions are beyond the scope of single discipline.
Page Nos. 37-44 ,Science Tech Entrepreneur, December 2001
By: P. S. S. Prabakar Rao, Director, Spectrum Planning
Moving Consumer Goods
supply chain is the fundamental structure of retailing without which
no retailer can successfully operate.
Its main elements are:
Customer Service Targeting and Monitoring
Depotsiting, Function And efficiencies
In this article, each of
these subjects will be covered separately although they are inter-dependent
upon one another. For the supply chain to operate effectively all elements
must be present and must operate as reasonably efficient level.
An obvious subject you might think, but if you spend some
time, say a Day, observing information needs of middle/junior level manager
in a company you would perhaps make two startling observations. The first
would be that this person is surrounded by unnoticed opportunities to
improve costs or service, or both. The second would be that his/her
information service is:
In the Wrong Format
Missing Key data
Many of reasons for installing any information system were
probably valid for the justification made at the time of the first
development of the perchage proposal. However, experience demonstrates that
very few justifications paid any attention to the fundamentals of Decision
Support Information, or the requirement to model strategic or tactical
management situation, concentrating in the main on the respective
departmental historical data flows and the operational elements of computing
Very often no
are defined for the information system to be installed and yet, it must be
the primary aim of every management to determine what is to be achieved.
To define the Key Objective, management information system requires a detailed examination of the
of the business with
a view to establishing:
cost sensitiveness of each product cost element, whether
production or service oriented.
external influences that can upset the operational projections.
change to operations, or management style or marketing
which will effect the manner in which the company
competitive activity, which will or can influence the
of the company.
5. The specific areas where the efficiencies
or equipment, machinery
or labour are critical to the optimum
performance of the company.
Once the aforesaid elements
are identified and documented, and their respective influences
established, the database from which the management information will be
extracted, computed and massaged, can be defined, and therefore the key
objectives of the management information system are defined.
The key objectives should
enable the information to be presented in such a manner that the effects of
changes in the elements, which materially effect the performance of the
company, can be identified and modeled.
The majority of information is presented in mountains of
paper, and is difficult to extract, combine and in some circumstances hard
It is imperative that the
information is presented in a manner, which reduces the necessity to
allocate time to assimilate information. The best forms of achieving this
2.Setting of standards, which when varied by
percentage will trigger of a report
highlighting the lack of
The data extraction process
must be able to be applied to all elements of the management database, which
reflects the changes in the operational effectiveness of company. The major
1. The information must be presented in a
format, which facilitates
identification of problems.
2. The control point of the supply chain must
be evaluated and
3. The database must allow the inclusion
of all the requires data
The data must
be readily available.
5. The data and the consequent reports must be
generated at the
instance of occurrence of
to allow management
find a solution
to problem or event
within reasonable time.
Sales forecasting is a much abused and discredited phrase
which owes its problems to a genuine case of semantic confusion.
A forecast, to quote the oxford English dictionary, is a
conjecture beforehand, or a prediction.
A sales forecast is a very important element in supply chain
management. It observes careful engineering if it is to do the job of
driving all the volume calculations within the inventory management arena.
The major elements that will be addressed here are:
4.Impact of Wrong Result
5.Creating the Right Image
It is normal for the sales people and their immediate
superiors to set the annual or revised forecasts.
As they have to justify their product promotional expenditure
and their existence, naturally, they are going to be bullish in their
approach to the problem, and unfortunately, not very scientific in their
methodology. Common practice is to add a fixed percentage to the previous
years performance to justify the departmental and the area coverage
explanation plans and then to create an incentive plan for the sales staff
to meet the targets.
When the sales targets are not met, the cries of
a promotion on the brands to performing" can be heard in the sales
department. The impact that the promotion can have no relation to supply chain
management is addressed further on.
It is grossly unfair for any level of senior management to
expect the sales department to justify their existence by the creation of
the very budget which drives the whole company and them to perform.
The ideal involvement must be the whole company and if that
appears impractical, let us examine the areas directly attributable to the
1.Raw material supply
6.Warehousing, size, number and locations
7.Trunking and delivery fleet
They form a total company, with the exception of
administration departments, so ideally the total company involved. However,
this creates a cumbersome apparatus to perform such a fundamental function
of any business and therefore, there has to be a practical approach to the
For a long time there has been a growing belief that the
importance of the forecast function, whether that be annual, or the weekly
revised forecast, is such that it should be taken away, from the proprietary
self interests of any department and placed into a function with a cuts
across all company politics. This department should either be a part of the
logistic department or the centralized inventory management department. The
talents of the whole company can then be drawn upon to provide inputs to the
Let us examine the methods applicable to creating sales
forecast. By highlighting some of the cases where it is incorrectly created,
this will serve to identify the correct minor and environment for the
creation of the sales forecast.
A major departmental store's retailers have fallen dawn
badly for many years on its order fulfillments rate, never meeting more than
85% of its actual demand and yet never including the unfilled elements of
each order in its actual revenue achievement analysis in formula terms that
Achieved sales by
brand + lost sales or order not met by brand = Total demand
The sum of that formula should form the basis for the future sales
projections. If not recorded, understood and utilized, the market demand
will never be met, however, valiantly the company employees perform and,
however much the marketing people justify market penetration.
One of the fundamental principles, which should be applied to
sales forecasting method, is that of the Normalization of data.
There are companies that attempt to prepare sales forecasts without
analyzing the previous periods' performance and extract all external
influences in that performance, which have no relevance to the operations
of normal products sales activity.
It is imperative that the sales forecast is made bearing
in mind the individual brand's sales performance, week by week, and the influences
that assisted in achieving their previous sales performances.
Competitive activity is the single most-influencing elements in
the creation of a sales forecast. Ignoring it can be the most damaging
factor to the cause of the non-Performance of any product or company sales
Any information relevant to competitive activity must be
collected and made readily available for use in the making of sales
forecasts. Understand the activities of your competition. Remember,
activity is not always detrimental, as their advertising and promotional
activity can heighten the awareness about the market sector to the consumer,
creating organic growth and hereby a larger market.
If the forecast is wrong, the results are well known and can
effectively destroy any management strategies, which are aimed at increasing
profits or market share and therefore, maintaining the achieved market
share. The following are a number of the consequences of poor sales
Under - Performance
1.Creation of marginal performance brands/products
2.Excess capital tied up in stock
3.Under utilized fleet of vehicles
4.Over utilized warehouse space
1.A lower order fulfillment rate
3.Customers' move to the competition
4.Extra resources have to be hired, e.g. delivery vehicles,
5.Fire fighting instead of planned situation management
6.Under utilization of warehouse space
The effects vary from company to company, but they do not
alter the fact that the business is not being run by the management but more
by the circumstances. It is vital that the right image is created by the
company sales forecast.
If the planning is correct and seen to be sufficiently
analytical and to have considered all the known exigencies, the fact that it
was later proven to be incorrect is not so damaging to the companies image,
as there will be circumstances which arise beyond any companies
comprehension or control and, which will have a detrimental or complimented
effect on the sales performance of the company. The trick is to try and
outguess the future.
Inventory management covers a wide range of ways in which to
maximize borrowings, strangle cash flaw, create new warehouses and yet
still not get the goods to the customer all in one go and within specified
lead times. It is probably the most complex technical area to get nearly
right (within the supply chain) and also an area where there is a severe
shortage of skills.
The major variables within inventory management are:
1.Source of supply
2.Frequency of delivery
4.Working capital availability
6.Storage Facility size and locations
7.Fleet Mix and Capacity
It is, therefore, of little wonder that many companies
struggle to achieve any form of optimization their inventory levels, and
alone arrange them and, without the benefit of quality computer technique
inventory management becomes a nightmare.
Further compounding influences on the efficiency of inventory
management are the entrenched attitudes of different departments, which if
viewed in isolation are all contrary to one another:
1.Finance requires lie lowest possible inventory level
2.Purchasing wants the bulls discounts
3.Sales and marketing want to meet every level of demand
These situations point to a dire need to establish the
highest level of coordination and responsibility which cuts across all the
traditional departmental political barriers, hence the move in retailing to
centralized in inventory management.
Within the control of inventory management of problems
getting it wrong fall into two categories:
levels, Result in:
1.Higher investment with the concurrent increase in interest
2.Storage facilities having to increased
3.If self life is a consideration then, out of age" product
4.Imbalances in product mix where storage facility are
Levels, Result in:
1.Part order deliveries
2.Progress chasing costs
3.Administration cost of supporting part order
4.Higher picking cost
5.Distortion of demand patterns
7.Expensive order processing
8.Under utilization of storage and transportation facilities
The implication of each or all of resultant condition are
rarely recorded which is surprising when their impact on the bottom line
can be so great. Unfortunately, very few information systems are designed to
identify problem areas, transaction processing being the fundamental
reason for installing computer which is a genuine under utilization of
Many of the inventory management techniques utilized are
manual and therefore, contribute towards the just in case syndrome. Of
course, the opposite is just in time Inventory Management. The concept is
accepted by many management teams but not ideal for some body else.
The major reasons being given for not entering the fray- "Our business is
different and cant get our suppliers to accept the require service levels
our demands cycles are too variable" (probably caused by excessive sales
What is being forgotten is that even if the ultimate aim of
Just in Time (JIT) is not achieved, or is conceivably impossible to achieve,
to have commenced the journey will highlighted many opportunities for making
efficiencies or improvements. It is far better to set your sights high and
achieve a part of the stated aims then not to have done anything at all. The
principles of Just in Time can be applied in part, but, not without good
Many companies don't manage their suppliers correctly,
particularly as the management relates to JIT, many controls within the
purchasing function don't relate to the efficiencies of inventory management
but rather to the rejection of purchase prices and the obtaining of bulk
The balancing act is that of:
Obtaining the materials
or service, at the lowest cost, the most frequent
Delivery service level
to minimize the inventory levels
This is the subject on which most sales directors or managers
work and yet, few really act to find out what the customer
really want. The importance of understanding customer service, not only
point from the retail point of view, but also from the central warehousing
stand point, can not be emphasized sufficiently.
Without a pre-defined customer service policy, all the
effort placed into inventory management, depot efficiencies and resource
simulation will be wasted as, this elements of the supply chain forms the
standard upon which:
1.The Inventory management policy
2.The sizing the labour force
3.The resources allocated to vehicles, warehouses and system
are all calculated and justified.
Developing a customer service policy requires the analysis of
four major area:
1.What the customer requires and needs
2.What the competition provides
3.What will be the likely demand of the market place
4.What are the current service performance levels
It is important to recognize that customer service levels
encompass activities, which go beyond the traditional measure of:
Completeness of order
Timeliness of delivery
But also must consider:
Value added range
Keeping the aisles free
of merchandisers during peak
To establish your customer service policy, the following
exercises are recommended:
customer service performance levels and
measures in use, they relate to
carton etc ) fulfillment rates, including all areas
of controllable error, Product promotion
non-cooperation, as well as the obvious areas of
substitutions, mis-picking, input
errors, sales forecasting and delivery
Assisting customers in
Helping with queries,
Timeliness of delivery
Information content on
Information content on
Staff training in
Obtain your customer views on future changes in the patterns
of ordering and general trading, the requirements for range changes, the
introduction of value added products, your company's performance compared to
the competition. It is perhaps an obvious statement but without customer you
do not have a business, so examine your organization, critically and
objectively, take the list of your customers requirements and needs, both
the generalities and the specifics and details where your organization falls
short against the list.
Identify where it goes wrong on you, most often, try to
establish the cause from the effect.
The final consideration must be for you to establish:
1.How does your organization wish to compete in the market
2.How this levels of competitiveness places you against your
and your identified customer requirements?
3.Can you afford to provide the service?
4.Can you afford NOT to provide the service?
5.Are their trades offs to be made with the customers?
function and efficiencies:
This would be a nice, simple, purely technical subject were
in not for the fact that top management, without detailed knowledge of
current distribution potential, can not keeps their hands off the subject.
There is a view which places stockholding depots, areas and
warehouses into a precise category, that of being required, not to provide
adequate service to your customers which can be served in a variety of
ways without such facilities, but, to make up for the inadequacies for your
planning or that of your suppliers.
If you consider stocks as being a cost which is at least
mainly a function of failure in the supply chain and never some positive
benefit or cushion of comfort you will be taking a properly prejudiced view
against such stockholding points.
What most companies call a depot really is a warehouse,
because the environments are dissimilar. A depot is sited to serve a
customer base, both existing and perceived. A warehouse holds excess stocks.
A fundamental argument concerned with customer service policy
is that of order fulfillment, what would your customers rather have:
48 hour turn round from order to delivery at 90%
fulfillment level, or 96 hour turn round from order to delivery at 95%
fulfillment level or 100% availability at shelf of all products, or 97%
availability at shelf with a wider range of alternative to choose from in
the event of out of stocks.
The real question is what can you afford. Experience shows
that if 100% fulfillment or requirement is satisfied, whether that be within
24 hours from a warehouse or immediately from the shelf, ignoring the
complicating factor of cost then their is an over stocks situation and
delivery facilities are over resourced.
Some major retailers have increased their numbers of depots
but, have change their functionality and the justification for creating
them. With extra facility being offered by the additional depots, the supply
service to the stores has introduced new replenishment methods and
The major factor in this sophistication of the supply chain
is that of increasing depot efficiencies.
Depot efficiencies have had to be increased to satisfied the
requirements at store level to:
1.Reduce stock levels
2.Increase the product range within the same shelf space
3.Improve customer service
Each activity has been analyzed to establish its place and
importance in the supply chain and the effect that poor performance of the
activity can have on the other elements.
The standards are monitored and actual performances compared
to the set standards, variances being reported on to management for them to
analyze and respond to
Efficiency levels and standards apply to areas of activity
1.Goods in receiving
2.Pallet put away to bulk storage
4.Cast till throughput
Not an exhaustive list list but representative of the areas
which required to be monitored. Each one being elements in managements
control of the supply chain.
This area has been extensively embraced by those retailers
who are in the forefront of the most profitable retailing practices, with
varying levels of success. It can not be effective without the correct level
of detail and management information, So therefore, Information technology
is a vital support tool in the simulation of resources.
A further principle to be applied is that of SIMPLE
APPROXIMATION , it is highly onerous in time and resources to undertake a
simulation of every single action within the supply-chain and it is very
doubtful if many retailers could wait for the time required to update the
database and undertake the data processing for the modeling exercises.
Can be defined as:
The analysis of history and projections, the combination of
( those that are controllable ), the application is
standards, the influences of decision support modeling structure in order
that the implication in changes in the supply chain can be ascertained.
Such changes are given below each event having a different
effect on the supply - chain and the requirement for the operation to
increase or decrease the resources likely effects of these changes in the
supply chain are also highlighted:
1. The Introduction of new
Changes in racking
Changing in shelf
Advance stock build
Special delivery to
2. Changes in Demand
Under or over
utilization of recourses
Under or over stocks
Product going past
sale by date
3. Development of new Markets
need to change the supply chain
need to provide extra resources
shelf space or changes in the shelf refill cycle
of historic data
listing of products
Reduction in shelf space
Changes to shelf layout
Reduction in labour
Changing in roll cage
and therefore vehicle requirements
6. Reduction in labour force
Increased overtime for
Reduced customer service
Changes in number of
7. Improved Depot / Warehouse
Ability to handle a
greater throughput of product
Reduction in costs
Reduction in labour
8. Introduction of new equipment
Ability to handle a
greater throughput of product
Reduction in labour
The list does not represent all the effect s but serves to
demonstrate the different effects that can be generated. It will be
apparent that without the modeling of the impact of such changes on the
supply-chain management will be in Reaction Mode and therefore, managing
crisis not the business.
Logistics management draws all the elements of the Supply
Chain into a common environment and creates a structure where the supply
chain elements are evaluated and improved to the benefits of the
organization as a whole and not just the parochial interests of the
department in which the elements normally lies.
One of the humorous definitions of logistics managements that
An exercise in how to trade on other peoples corns
A strange definition at first reading but if you examine the
implications of logistics engagement, it is requiring excellence in fields
and disciplines not directly controlled by logistics, in order that the
optimum levels of performance can be attend within those areas notionally
allocated to logistics.
This comment can be highlighted by outlining the aspects of
corporate management as they relate to logistics management within the
Sales and marketing
Operations and finance
targeting sales, warehouse operations, distribution &
Depot sitting and
efficiencies warehouse operations. Distribution and MIS
To take away the responsibility of these elements from the
existing corporate owners will cause aggravation but the main advantage is
that it creates a management environment, which is not liable to prejudicial
influence in its control and action taking. Logistics managements within the
supply chain provides the focal point for the combined effort of the
management team because it requires input from all sector of the corporate
structure and as the resource plans for the demand of pattern fulfillment
will emanate from its utilization the political implication of business
sectors with their own objectives and boundaries of control and authority,
having to give up jealousy guarded elements of power, will become a far
lesser problem. The rewards to be gained from the application of logistics
and supply chain management are:
The honing and turning of the elements within logistics and
supply chain management will create bottom line profits. The more
efficient a business becomes, when works in the cash hungry environment, must
provide a better control of cash and therefore, a lesser degree of cash
Although customer service is still be determined by perceived
needs of the marketplace, as quantified by management, the application of
the principles and practice of logistics management will highlight the
implication of meeting various service levels and therefore, enable the
management team to base its customer service level policy on sound cost and
Although this benefit might be perceived facetious, it is a
fact of the stressful management life, supported by medical evidence, that
coronaries occur most when assisted by stress factors. Logistics management
can reduce the stress caused by inter departmental friction; the need to
fight fires , and requirement to achieve impossible goals because
someone who sets the goals does not understand the logistical implications.
As stated before, any improvement in the efficiencies of a
business will reflect themselves in cost saving and therefore, higher
Given that certain market influences are beyond a company's
control, logistics management can highlight the implications of such
influences and also enable solutions to be simulated and evaluated. Changes
in any of the elements effecting logistics and the supply chain can be
simulated and their impact ascertained.
Company projections can be converted into, Logistics plans
and evaluated by management prior to implementation, with a high degree of
confidence as to success of the plans.
2010 Spectrum Planning (India) Limited , All Rights Reserved.rved.